News: Now available. Proceedings of the Chelmsford Conference £15. A review of recent archaeology in Essex. Our Annual Report 2014 may be viewed online. Members of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History may subscribe to digital downloads of our back catalogue of publications. Use Contact Form for more information.
Wednesday, 2 August 2017
Wednesday, 19 July 2017
The Industrial Archaeology Group of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History holds its second Industrial Archaeology Fair this autumn:
THE ESSEX INDUSTRIAL ARCHEAOLOGY GROUP PRESENT
Thursday, 15 June 2017
The Essex Society for Archaeology and History is title owner of the Essex Journal, published twice a year to subscribers on payment of £10 annually. Click here to subscribe.
The contents of the latest edition, just published, are:
Editorial ... 2
News from the Essex Record Office ... 4
Galleywood Heritage Centre ... 5
Billericay and Great Burstead: the Muster Roll of 1539: Julian Whybra ... 6
When Bill Sykes Junior came to visit - the rise of juvenile crime in Southend during the Great War: Andrew Emeny ... 15
Ongar Radio Station: Michael Leach ... 25
Tuesday 29th October 1940: Spitfire Down: Neil Wiffen ... 33
Obituaries: Peter Huggins (1926-2016), Beryl Board (1929-2017) ... 40
Book Reviews ... 42
EJ Twenty Questions. Richard Morris ... 45
Wednesday, 14 June 2017
Essex Society for Archaeology and History
Transactions. Fourth Series. Volume 6 (2015)
Obituary. Peter Joseph Huggins, 1926-2016: Stan Newens … 1
Obituary. Kenneth James Neale, 1922-2016: H Martin Stuchfield … 3
Life at the floodplain edge: Terminal Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic flint scatters and early prehistoric archaeology along the Beam River Valley: Carl Champness, Michael Donnelly, Ben M Ford & Andrew Haggart … 5
Excavation of Prehistoric, Roman and Medieval remains at Priors Green, Takeley, Essex, 2006 to 2010: Mark Germany, Robert Masefield & Adrian Scruby … 46
A Survey of Selected Late Iron Age and Roman Sacred Sites in Eastern England, with particular reference to Essex: E W Black … 106
Harlow Roman Temple and other Essex temples: a numismatic study: Mark Curteis … 164
An Early Roman Cremation Cemetery at Haslers Lane, Great Dunmow: Mark Atkinson … 189
A Roman crop-processing enclosure at Great Tey, and other sites on the Cressing to Great Horkesley Anglian Water trunk main: rescue excavations 1998: Patrick Allen & Stuart Gibson … 235
Two sites within the vicinity of Roman Dunmow: Newton Works and Brookfield Farm excavations, 2003-04 … Mark Germany, Ben Barker & David Maynard … 266
Archaeological Investigations at Prior’s Hall, Widdington, 2004 and 2007: Trevor Ennis … 275
Late Saxon and Medieval Occupation at the former Bus Station, 148-152 High Street, Maldon: Excavations 1999: Trevor Ennis … 289
The two burhs of Maldon, Essex, and their antecedents: Jeremy Haslam … 312
Modelling Patronage: the Chronology and Financing of the Perpendicular Work at St Mary, Saffron Walden: Gabriel Byng … 329
Prittlewell Priory since 1536: owners, tenants and history: Ken Crowe … 344
Archaeological Fieldwork Summaries 2015: Paul Gilman (ed.) … 366
A Romanised Section of the Icknield Way at Great Chesterford: Pat Moan … 378
Essex Industrial Archaeology Group: Tony Crosby … 384
Excavations along the M25: Prehistoric, Roman and Anglo-Saxon Activity between Aveley and Epping, Essex: Nigel Brown … 386
Alien Cities. Consumption and the Origins of Urbanisation in Roman Britain: Nick Wickenden … 387
Medieval Lawyer: Clement Spice of Essex: Jennifer Ward … 388
The Thames Iron Works, 1837-1912: a Major Shipbuilder on the Thames: Adrian Corder-Birch … 388
Earls Colne’s Early Modern Landscapes: Jane Pearson … 389
Alan Sorrell: the Life and Works of an English Non-Romantic Artist: Nigel Brown … 389
Under Fire: Essex and the Second World War 1939-45: Martyn Lockwood … 391
In Quest of a Fairer Society: My Life in Politics: Adrian Brown … 391
Essex Bibliography: Andrew Phillips & Paul Sealey … 393
Sunday, 4 June 2017
Now issued four times a year, members of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History will have received their copy of the Newsletter (NL182) a fortnight ago which includes details of the forthcoming Annual General Meeting to be held at Silver End Village Hall on Saturday 17 June at 2pm.
This edition includes:
- From the President
- Historic Pubs Come Under Planning Protection
- Lost Landscapes: Reconstructing Medieval Essex, 19 March 2017. A report of the Conference held at Essex Record Office
- 800th Anniversary of the Charter of the Forest 1217
- Nelson and the Vicar of Southminster - the Rev. Alexander John Scott
- William Dugard, Schoolmaster of Colchester 1637 -1642/3
- The Ongar Theatre in 1790
- Alderford Mill, Sible Hedingham
- Gustav Holst, Conrad Noel and the Whitsun Festivals (Part 2)
- Bulmer Brick and Tile Works
- The Society grants £1000 to Roman Circus House
- Events in Essex
-- Royal Gunpowder Mills
-- Battle of Assandun Dig
- Essex Seen From Elsewhere
-- Train Returns to National Railway Museum, York
- Callout to Volunteers
-- Industrial Heritage Fair, 7 October 2017
-- Ex Congress
- Readers' Letters
-- Stondon Massey Rectory
-- Henry Fitzroy Burial
-- Colin Richard Kirwan, 1924-2016
-- Beryl Board F.R.Hist.S.
-- Olive Grace Earnshaw, 1942-2017
- Book Reviews
-- Library Policy
-- A Dictionary of Suffolk Place-Names, by K Briggs and K Kilpatrick. English Place-name Society Popular Series Vol. 6. Suffolk Archaeology & History Society. 214 pages £14
-- Medieval Graffiti. The Lost Voices of England's Churches, by Matthew Champion. Ebury Press. 2015. 253 pages. £14.99
Thursday, 18 May 2017
Sunday, 7 May 2017
University of Essex
Professorial Inaugural Lectures
Monday 22 May 2017
Professor Alison Rowlands Department of History
Hunting 'witches' in early modern Europe. What sort of people were prosecuted as 'witches' in Europe between c. 1420 and 1780, and why? What can we learn about early modern society from witch-trials and what was their historical impact? Professor Rowlands answers these questions using detailed archival records and case studies
Programme starts at 6pm followed by a drinks reception from 7.15pm
Lakeside Theatre, Colchester Campus.
Free admission and open to all.
Professorial Inaugural Lectures
Our Professorial Inaugural Lecture series celebrates excellence in research undertaken by our recently appointed professors. It's a privilege to have leading global thinkers at our University and through this lecture series we are keen to share our very best research, to exchange ideas and inspire you. Conducting internationally significant research means our lecturers always have their fingers on the pulse and academics at Essex are at the forefront of the latest research findings and emerging trends. Our new professors will offer enlightening explanations on their own specialist subjects in areas such as sociology, politics, health and human sciences, psychology, computer science and electronic engineering, history, biological sciences, sports science and economics.
Find out more about the series: www.essex.ac.uk/events/pil
Lectures will be available to view online: .www.vimeo.com/uniofessex
Free admission and open to all. Booking advised.
Book online: www.lakesidetheatre.org.uk
Saturday, 29 April 2017
Essex Record Office has informed by Chelmsford City Council that it will be closing their Wharf Road surface car park on Saturday 27 May 2017. This is the car park adjacent to the Essex Record Office.
The site has been sold to Taylor Wimpey who will soon commence the build of around 420 homes on the site.
This means from Sunday 28 May Wharf Road Car Park will no longer be available. There are, however, many alternatives.
The nearest car parks to the Essex Record Office are as follows:
· Baddow Road CM2 7PJ long / short stay 344 spaces
· Meadows Surface CM2 6FD short stay 250 spaces
· Q-Parks Meadows CM2 0DG long / short stay multi storey 454 spaces
o We have arranged discounts for this car park – please follow the link below for details
· Meadows Retail CM2 6LU short stay multi storey 391 spaces
· Euro Car Park CM2 6JX short stay
Park and Ride is also available at the following locations (we are a short walk from the Parkway bus stop):
· Chelmer Valley CM3 3PR 1003 spaces
· Sandon CM2 7RU 1500 spaces
We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause to yourself and other visitors to the Essex Record Office but as this is a Chelmsford City Council owned site we have no control over its operation.
Should you require any further assistance please contact our Conference Centre Team on 033301 32501 or by email at email@example.com
Marketing Manager - Essex Record Office
Wednesday, 26 April 2017
Royal Gunpowder Mills Visit
Saturday 1st July 2017 at 11am
There is an additional visit this year to the Royal Gunpowder Mills in Waltham Abbey. The Gunpowder Mills are not open to the public on this day. The cost will be £13.00 per person, and includes entry, land train tour (which lasts 45 mins and allows you access to areas you are not allowed during opening times) and refreshments, which will be available all day. A minimum number of 20 is required to qualify for the group booking rate. There is free parking at the site. All bookings to be made through the usual channel to Dr Graham Gould.
Sunday, 16 April 2017
High Country History Group: Essex Churches Then and Now. Thursday 27 April 201...: Our next meeting will be on Thursday 27 April, 8pm, when Andrew Smith, in his role as Honorary Archivist of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History, will be giving a talk on Essex churches drawing on two albums of Victorian photographs in the Society's collection.
Posted by Andrew Smith at 09:47
Saturday, 15 April 2017
This book contains the collection of papers presented at a one-day Conference at the Essex Record Office in March 2014: ‘The Fighting Essex Soldier: Recruitment, War and Remembrance in the Fourteenth Century’. Its launch will be on Saturday 6 May 2017 between 2.00-3.45pm. Tickets are free but advance booking is essential. Information on the papers read is given in the attached document. http://www.essexrecordofficeblog.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Fighting-Essex-Soldier-programme.pdf
Freedom of Information Request regarding Essex Record Office costs: Response to the Essex Society for Archaeology and History
The Essex Society for Archaeology and History has an enthusiasm for the understanding of the county's past so became concerned when it was announced that one of the jewels of archives, the Essex Record Office, faced cuts in service and an aim to 'break even' over the course of time. The Society took the unusual step of making a Freedom of Information request to Essex County Council portfolio holders. Here published is the response which will no doubt be of interest to our members but also members of the public who care about the facilities provided.
Essex County Council
PO Box 11 County Hall Chelmsford Essex CM1 1 LX
Mr A Corder-Birch DL
The Essex Society for Archaeology & History
Dear Mr Corder-Birch
20 March 2017
I understand that the formal response to your Freedom of Information (FOI) request has been sent to you today.
However, I recognise that this response will raise as many questions as it provides answers. That is why I would have preferred to give the information within the context of a meeting, and why I hope now you will agree to have the conversation rather than engage in yet more correspondence.
From my point of view there are several goals:
1. To ensure that an excellent service continues to be available for the residents of Essex.
2. To ensure that it is provided in the most cost effective way. Excellent services are worth paying for and my aspiration around "break even" is that there is sufficient demand, and that — where appropriate, not including legal obligation — each unit of service provision attracts income at least equivalent to its marginal cost;
3. We retain commitment and expertise of our staff.
I do hope to hear from you shortly with a view to arranging a meeting in County Hall. The contact number for my office is 03330 131026.
Cllr-John Spence CBE DL
Cabinet Member for Finance, Commercial, Traded Services, Housing and Planning.
Freedom of Information Act / Environmental Information Regulations Request
I can confirm that Essex County Council does hold this information.
• Running costs of ERO for 2016/17 are:
o Staffing and activity costs: £ 981,000
o Building costs: £ 538,000
o Total: £1,519,000
I can confirm that Essex County Council does hold this information. The current income target for 2016/17 is £700,000
I can confirm that Essex County Council does hold this information. Please see below:
· To the end of January 2017, income for the financial year was £464,000
· Our forecast for the full year to March 2017 is approximately £520,000
· Clearly some of our ambitions have not been met as we go through the process of learning about the size and availability of markets, etc, and we will build this into our planning for future years.
I can confirm that Essex County Council does not hold this information. We are currently reviewing our future business plans, leading to a business case for internal review in the summer of 2017.
I can confirm that Essex County Council does hold this information. Current staffing levels linked directly to delivery of the Archive Service are:
- Archivists – collection management, accessions, research, client advice – 6.5 FTE (Full Time Equivalent)
- Technical Specialists – digitisation, conservation and preservation, sound and video archive – 5 FTE
- Public Service – ERO Searchroom, on-demand document production, front-line and on-line enquiries, reprographics, archive repository management, etc – 4 FTE
- Events, outreach, education, marketing, etc – 3 FTE
In addition, providing associated services within the £ figures cited in ‘1’ and ‘2’, above
- Duplicate Certificates service (ie birth, marriage and death certificates): 4 FTE
- Conference centre, building operations and security: 3.5 FTE
We have recently reviewed the Searchroom public opening hours (with effect from April 2017) to reflect user demand and these have been publicised separately during February. We will continue to review our overall service delivery model, costs, efficiencies and resourcing as part of the future planning referred to in ‘4’, above
I can confirm that Essex County Council does hold this information. Only when any plan is developed, following the internal review later this year, can we determine the need for public consultation. In that case we will, of course, engage key stakeholders such as Essex Society for Archaeology & History
Your Right to Know
Essex County Council
Telephone: 08457 430430
Monday, 3 April 2017
The Essex Record Office is making significant changes to its search room opening times with effect from Tuesday 4 April 2017. Typically there will be a three day week, after which the lights will go out, but every fourth week there will be a long week when the search room will be open from Tuesday to Saturday. The timetable is not straightforward and requires forward planning before making a visit to avoid disappointment. Click here to follow link to the ERO site.
Members of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History will be interested to know this information. The link is therefore posted on the side bar of the blog for future reference.
Saturday, 1 April 2017
The penultimate talk of the Essex Branch of the Historical Association will be held on Saturday 8th April 2017 at 2.30pm at the Trinity Methodist Church, Rainsford Road, Chelmsford, CM1 2XB. The talk is entitled:
Aspects of Iron Age & Roman Colchester
Given by Dr Patrick Denney,
Visiting Fellow, Dept. of History, Univ. of Essex
Colchester was both the Iron Age and Roman capital of Britain. When the Romans arrived in 43AD they began by constructing a legionary fortress on the site of the modern day town, before later converting it into a Colonia for retired veterans from the Roman army. The talk will highlight some of the major archaeological finds from the Roman town and fortress which, collectively, have done so much to help shape our knowledge of Roman Colchester.
Patrick Denney is one of the leading Colchester historians and has written numerous articles and books on the history of Colchester. He is an active member of the Colchester Recalled Oral History Group and Secretary of the Friends of Colchester Museums. He is also a Regional Blue Badge Tourist Guide.
Thank You Debbie Cresswell (publicity)
Wednesday, 22 March 2017
FRIENDS OF ESSEX CHURCHES TRUST
SPRING STUDY DAY
WEDNESDAY 3 MAY 2017
Everyone is invited to join Essex historian
Dr Christopher Starr
for talks in 4 interesting medieval churches in NW Essex
10.30 St Mary the Virgin, Stebbing
(Watch House Road, CM6 3SW)
11.00 Tea and coffee will be available.
11.30 St Peter & St Paul, Bardfield Saling
(Church Road, CM7 5ED)
12.30 Lunch, own arrangements, there are pubs and places for picnics in the vicinity.
14.00 St Mary the Virgin, Little Sampford
15.00 St Michael, Great Sampford
16.00 Light refreshments will be available.
There are lavatories in the vicinity of each church except Bardfield Saling.
The order in which we visit the churches is determined by the availability of refreshments, and as these are kindly provided by the churches suitable donations would be appreciated please.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------To: Mrs S. Clark-Starr, 10 Kings Meadow, Sudbury, Suffolk, CO10 0HP
I/We wish to attend the FOECT Spring Study Day on Wednesday 3 May 2017
and enclose a cheque made payable to FRIENDS OF ESSEX CHURCHES TRUST
No. members @ £7 each ( ) No. guests @ £10.00 ea. ( ) Donation £……… Total £……..……………
Charity No. 236033
We are trying to raise £1000 for FOECT to support some of our wonderful churches and welcome any donations.
The next Autumn Study Day will be held on Saturday 7 October 2017 in south-east Essex
Saturday, 18 March 2017
The Essex Society for Archaeology and History, with the Essex Places Names Project, was pleased to sponsor a conference, 'Lost Landscapes: Reconstructing medieval Essex' held at the Essex Record Office today, Saturday 18 March 2017.
Medieval Essex was a land of rich variety, including estuaries and marshland, coastline and rivers, royal forests and ancient countryside. The landscape around us can seem like a fixed and permanent thing but it is, in fact, ever-changing, shaped by both natural and human forces. Today, expert speakers will explore how the landscape of medieval Essex shaped the lives of the people who lived there, and how they in turn shaped the environment around them.
Registration and refreshments
Dr Jim Galloway – Storms, floods and fisheries: the Thames marshes in the later middle ages
Tea and coffee
Dr James Kemble – How the Essex Placenames database can help your research
Paul Mardon – What’s in a name? What names tell us about places
Graham Jolliffe – Reconstructing an Essex medieval deer park
Dr Christopher Thornton – The ‘Wick’ farms of St Osyth
Prof. Stephen Rippon – Early medieval estates in Essex
A little about our speakers…
Dr Jim Galloway is an independent researcher specialising in medieval economic and environmental history. Formerly of the Institute of Historical Research, University of London, he now lives in Ireland and is a Visiting Lecturer at Carlow College.
Paul Mardon has been a volunteer with the Essex Place Names Project since 2009 and has worked on a number of parishes across the county. He also gives talks to local groups and provides advice and guidance to volunteer recorders.
Dr James Kemble studied Landscape and Archaeology at Cambridge and London and has a degree in Archaeological Sciences. He is Coordinator of the Essex Place-Names Project.
Graham Jolliffe is a Research Data Manager at the Institute for Social and Economic Research at the University of Essex. He is the co-founder and Chairman of the Stebbing Local History Society which was established in 1995. He has done a considerable amount of original research on Stebbing which has been distributed through the society’s own publications. Since 2013 he has been working with Professor L. R. Poos of the Catholic University of America to transcribe, interpret and map the medieval and Tudor manorial documentary evidence for Stebbing – today's talk was a product of that research.
Dr Christopher Thornton is County Editor of the Victoria County History of Essex, Chairman of the Friends of Historic Essex and has been involved with the Essex Place Names Project since its launch. His research on Essex has ranged from medieval buildings, settlement and field systems to the history of modern seaside resorts. Most recently he has been investigating the history of the parish, market town and abbey of St Osyth for next volume of the VCH.
Prof. Stephen Rippon is Professor of Landscape Archaeology at the University of Exeter, although he was born and brought up in Essex. His most recent book – The Fields of Britannia – explored the extent of continuity in land-use from the Roman through to the early medieval periods. He is currently researching the development of territorial structures (kingdoms, civitates, counties, and estates) across eastern England.
Sunday, 12 March 2017
Newsletter #181 has been issued to members of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History. In this edition:
- From the President
- Essex Record Office
- Growing Heritage
- Stondon Massey Rectory
- Visit to Colchester Castle Gaol in 1801
- Prison Regime at Chelmsford in the 1830s
- A Grammar School in Essex: Brentwood
- Essex Links to Schism in North American Quakerism
- Gustav Holst, Conrad Noel and the Whitsun Festivals at Thaxted
- Richard Warner and Pehr Kalm
- Pehr Kalm and the Essex Countryside in 1748
- Birch Church: an update
- Ash Dieback and the Emerald Ash Borer
- An Apposite Sermon
- An Essex Good Pub Guide of 1636?
- Essex Seen From Elsewhere
- Readers Letters
- Book Reviews
- Events in Essex
Sunday, 5 March 2017
Saturday 11 March 2.00pm
Morant Lecture: Illustrated Talk by Ben Cowell on Some Essex Country Houses and their Owners, Venue: Church House Newport Including refreshments. Cost £5.00 members of Essex Society for Archaeology and History, £6.00 non-members
Southend Historic Environment Record and the Preservation of Southend's Heritage: The President writes to its Borough Council
The Essex Society for Archaeology & History
Mr. Peter Geraghty,
Director of Planning and Transport,
Southend on Sea Borough Council,
Civic Centre, Victoria Avenue,
1st March 2017
Dear Mr. Geraghty,
Southend Historic Environment Record and Protection of Southend's Heritage
Thank you for your letter of 11th January, setting out Southend Borough Council's arrangements for its Historic Environment Record (HER). We note that the HER is currently held at Southend Museum. The Southend Museums service is a great asset to the Borough; the town's museums are amongst the best in Essex and stand comparison with any Local Authority run museums in England. Southend has particularly fine and extensive archaeological collections; the work of a museum archaeologist is, of course, very different from that of a planning archaeologist, who must maintain and enhance the HER, identify necessary archaeological work arising from the planning process, prepare a brief to govern such work, approve written schemes, monitor fieldwork, and subsequent post-excavation work through to publication. How many archaeological staff does the Museum's service employ? and is it correct to assume that there are staff whose duties are dedicated to the maintenance of the HER and management of the archaeological resource through the planning process?
President, Essex Society for Archaeology and History
The Essex Society for Archaeology and History has received this notice which it is pleased to publish. The Morant Lecture is on the same day.
Please find details of the next talk of Essex Branch of the Historical Association which may be of interest to your members.
The March talk of the Essex Branch of the Historical Association will be held on 11 March 2017, 2.30pm at the Trinity Methodist Church, Rainsford Road, and is entitled The Protestation of 1642 in Essex by Prof. John Walter, Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Essex and the author of Covenanting Citizens: The Protestation Oath and Popular Political Culture in the English Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2017)
In 1641 Parliament, fearing that the king was plotting against them, introduced and took an oath called the Protestation. This was an oath with radical intentions and revolutionary consequences primarily intending to get the nation to swear parish by parish in defence of Parliament. The Protestation returns provide a census of mid-seventeenth-century England still too little known or used. They challenge our conventional picture of the Civil War as a reluctant conflict among the political elite, telling a tale of how ‘ordinary’ men and women in responding to the political and religious messages of the oath claimed for themselves a political voice.
Visitors warmly welcomed - £3.
Debbie Cresswell (publicity officer)
Friday, 24 February 2017
FOI Acknowledgement ECC2010920 02 17
20 February 2017
Thank you for your recent request for information which has been received by Essex County Council.
Your request is covered by the Freedom of Information Act, under which we must respond within 20 working days.
We will determine and let you know whether we hold the information you have requested and consider whether we are able to release the information or if it is exempt from disclosure.
ECC does not usually charge for providing information to its requestors as the provision of electronic copies is negligible, however under certain circumstances we may have to do so if providing the information costs more than £25. We will let you know before we do any work that would incur a charge.
Please note that the response and data released to you as part of this request will be published on the Essex County Council website. The website address is http://www.essex.gov.uk/Your-Council/Your-Right-Know/Pages/Your-Right-Know.aspx. All requests will be anonymised and no personal information including contact details will be disclosed as part of this process.
Please contact me if you would like further advice or assistance about your request, or your right to access information held by Essex County Council.
Your Right to Know
Essex County Council
The Essex Society for Archaeology & History
Cllr. John Spence, C.B.E., D.L., Essex County Council, PO Box 11 County Hall, CHELMSFORD, Essex.
19th February 2017
Dear Cllr. Spence,
Thank you for your letter of 13th February and for your kind invitation to meet you at County Hall.
My colleagues and I will be pleased to meet you in due course, but before doing so would appreciate answers to the questions raised in my letters of 16th November 2016 and 23rd January 2017 to Cllr. Finch. It is important to have the information requested prior to our meeting so that we can fully prepare and can discuss details, figures and statistics with you.
On behalf of the Essex Society for Archaeology and History; information has been requested in writing on two occasions, which has not been forthcoming. This is very disappointing and therefore at our last Council meeting on 21st January 2017, authority was given to pursue this under the Freedom of Information Act. Will you therefore kindly accept this letter as our formal FOI request for the information and documentation requested in our letters of 16th November 2016 and 23rd January 2017 to be fully supplied, within the requisite time limits please.
Following this we shall happily meet you, but would ask for minutes of our meeting to be taken please. I look forward to hearing from you please. Thank you
Adrian Corder-Birch, D.L., President, Essex Society for Archaeology and History